Research on the Construction of Technology-rich Classroom Learning Environment to Develop English Language Learning and Higher-order Thinking
Keywords:Technology-rich Learning Environment; , English Learning; , Higher-order Thinking
Background and Aim: Applying emerging technologies to explore new learning ecology has become the focus of current education reform. Foreign language majors in China were once criticized for their lack of critical thinking abilities. This paper aims to construct a technology-rich classroom learning environment and explore its impact on participants’ English learning and higher-order thinking.
Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental research design using a quantitative research approach. English language teaching experiment was conducted on 60 samples selected by using the purposive sampling method. Participants were university second-year business English majors, and their English listening, speaking and higher-order thinking skills were pre- and post-tested. Data were collected through tests and quantitative questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and paired-sample T-tests on the hypothesis were conducted by using the statistical software Jamovi.
Results: Participants showed a high evaluation of the constructed technology-rich classroom learning environment. Their English listening skills and speaking competency have been efficiently improved, especially listening comprehension, speaking content, and language use. Their higher-order thinking was also improved, especially their analytical ability and cognitive maturity. Meanwhile, participants demonstrated a high level of cognitive engagement and learning satisfaction.
Conclusion: This study proposed a model for technology-rich learning environment design, as well as a constructivist instructional design model, revealing the mechanism of technology promoting learning and providing relevant methods. The study also demonstrated that the simultaneous development of foreign language learning and higher-order thinking could be achieved in a technology-rich environment. This paper also puts forward suggestions for further enriching instructional design and technology-rich learning environment design.
Acharya, A. S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P., & Nigam, A. (2013). Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialties, 4(2), 330-333.
Adair-Hauck, B., Willingham-McLain, L., & Youngs, B. E. (2000). Evaluating the integration of technology and second language learning. CALICO Journal, 17(2), 269-306.
Ahmad, J. (2012). English language teaching (ELT) and integration of media technology. Procedia-Social Behavioral Sciences, 47, 924-929. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.758
Alamri, M.M. (2019). Students’ Academic Achievement Performance and Satisfaction in a Flipped Classroom in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 11, 103-119.https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2019.096786
Altun, M. (2015). The integration of technology into foreign language teaching. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 6(1), 22-27.
Amin, M. (2019). The role of educational technology in the ESL classroom. Global Journal of Archaeology Anthropology, 11(1), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3488369
Applefield, J. M., Huber, R., & Moallem, M. (2000). Constructivism in theory and practice: Toward a better understanding. The High School Journal, 84(2), 35-53.
Bagarukayo, E., Weide, T., Mbarika, V. & Kim, M. (2012). The impact of learning driven constructs on the perceived higher-order cognitive skills improvement: Multimedia vs. text. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 8(2), Open Campus, The University of the West Indies, West Indies. Retrieved August 9, 2023 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/188047/.
Bauer, J., & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward technology integration in the schools: Why it isn’t happening. Journal of Technology Teacher Education, 13(4), 519-546.
Bodner, G. M. (1986). Constructivism: A Theory of Knowledge. Journal of Chemical Education, 63, 873-877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed063p873
Bradley, C., & Ross, J. (1993). Improving higher order thinking skills by teaching “with” the computer: A comparative study. Journal of research on computing in education, 26(1), 94-115.
Braten, S. (1993). Social-emotional and auto-operational roots of cultural (peer) learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 16 (33), 515–515. Doi:10.1017/S0140525X00031289.
Brush, T., & Saye, J. (2000). Implementation and evaluation of a student-centered learning unit: A case study. Educational Technology Research Development, 48(3), 79-100.
Clarke, C. C. (1918). The phonograph in modern language teaching. The Modern Language Journal, 3(3), 116-122.
Collins, R. (2014). Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking. Curriculum & Leadership Journal, 12(14), 1-4.
Cuban, L. (1984). Policy and research dilemmas in the teaching of reasoning: Unplanned designs. Review of educational research, 54(4), 655-681.
Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (1991). Constructivism: New implications for instructional technology? Educational Technology, 31(5), 7-12.
Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9-26). New York: W H Freeman.
Fisher, A. (2008). Teaching comprehension and critical literacy: Investigating guided reading in three primary classrooms. Literacy, 42(1), 19-28.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906
Fraser, B. J. (1998). Classroom Environment Instruments: Development, Validity and Applications. Journal of Learning Environment Research, 1, 7-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009932514731
Fredricks, J. A., Filsecker, M., & Lawson, M. A. (2016). Student engagement, context, and adjustment: Addressing definitional, measurement, and methodological issues. Learning and Instruction, 43, 1-4.
Gagne, R., Wager, W., Golas, K., Keller, J., & Russell, J. (2005). Principles of instructional design. In: Wiley Online Library.
Ghavifekr, S. & Rosdy, W.A.W. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology: Effectiveness of ICT integration in schools. International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES), 1(2), 175-191
Greg, K. (2018). Technology and the future of language teaching. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 205-218.
Groff, J. (2013). Technology-rich innovative learning environments. OCED CERI Innovative Learning Environment Project, 2013, 1-30.
Gülbahar, Y. (2007). Technology planning: A roadmap to successful technology integration in schools. Computers education, 49(4), 943-956.
Hare, J. C., Ault, M., & Niileksela, C. (2011). The Influence of Technology-Rich Learning Environments: A Classroom-based Observational Study. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference,
Harwell, S. H., Gunter, S., Montgomery, S., Shelton, C., & West, D. (2001). Technology integration and the classroom learning environment: Research for action. Learning Environments Research, 4(3), 259-286.
Hassan, Z. A., Schattner, P., & Mazza, D. (2006). Doing a pilot study: why is it essential? Malaysian Family Physician: the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 1(3), 70.
Hopson, M. H., Simms, R. L., & Knezek, G. A. (2001). Using a technology-enriched environment to improve higher-order thinking skills. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(2), 109-119.
Huang, Y. S. (2010). A Must Curriculum Reform of the English Major. Foreign Language World, (1), 11-16.
Ivie, S. D. (1998). Ausubel's learning theory: An approach to teaching higher order thinking skills. The High School Journal, 82(1), 35-42.
Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Thinking technology: Toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology, 34(4), 34-37.
Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Designing a constructivist learning environment. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2, pp. 215-240). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kahu, E. (2013) Framing Student Engagement in Higher Education. Studies in Higher Education, 38, 758-773. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.598505.
Kaminski, K., Switzer, J., & Gloeckner, G. (2009). Workforce readiness: A study of university students’ fluency with information technology. Computers & Education, 53(2), 228-233.
Kelman, H.C. (1990). Applying a Human Needs Perspective to the Practice of Conflict Resolution: The Israeli—Palestinian Case. In: Burton, J. (eds) Conflict: Human Needs Theory. The Conflict Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21000-8_15
Kern, R. G. (1995). Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. The Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 457-476.
Lipman, B. L. (1991). How to decide how to decide how to...: Modeling limited rationality. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 59 (4), 1105–1125.
Mainali, B. P. (2012). Higher order thinking in education. Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2 (1), 5-10.
Matielo, R., & Farias, P. (2014). Language Learning with Technology–Ideas for Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Ilha do Desterro a Journal of English Language, Literatures in English Cultural Studies, 66, 301-307.
McMahon, G. (2007). Getting the HOTS with what's in the box: Developing higher order thinking skills within a technology-rich learning environment. Doctoral Dissertation, Curtin University, Purth, Australia.
Miri, B., David, BC. & Uri, Z. (200). Purposely Teaching for the Promotion of Higher-order Thinking Skills: A Case of Critical Thinking. Res Sci Educ, 37, 353–369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-006-9029-2
Mohammad, R., & Farhana, R. (2018). Dilemma between constructivism and constructionism. Journal of International education in business, 11(2), 273-290.
Najdabbasi, N., & Pedaste, M. (2014). Integration of technology into classrooms: Role of knowledge and teacher beliefs. International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction,
Nanjappa, A., & Grant, M. M. (2003). Constructing on constructivism: The role of technology. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 2(1), 38-56.
National Administry Committee on Teaching the English Language to Majors in Higher Education under The Ministry of Education. (2020). National Standards for the Teaching Quality of Undergraduate Programs in Chinese Colleges and Universities. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
Pimentel, J. L. (2010). A note on the usage of Likert Scaling for research data analysis. USMR&D Journal, 18(2), 109-112.
Porcaro, D. (2011). Applying constructivism in instructivist learning cultures. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 5(1), 39-54. doi:10.1108/17504971111121919
Richland, L. E., & Simms, N. (2015). Analogy, higher-order thinking, and education. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 6(2), 177-192.
Rüschoff, B., & Ritter, M. (2001). Technology-enhanced language learning: Construction of knowledge and template-based learning in the foreign language classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14(3-4), 219-232.
Salaberry, M. R. (2001). The use of technology for second language learning and teaching: A retrospective. The Modern Language Journal, 85(1), 39-56.
Salomon, G. (1990). Cognitive Effects with and of Computer Technology. Communication Research. 17 (1), 26-44. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365090017001002
Sosas, R. V. (2021). Technology in teaching speaking and its effects on students learning English. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 17(2), 958-970.
Stanley, G. (2013). Language learning with technology: Ideas for integrating technology in the classroom. Cambridge University Press.
Stefanovic, D., Drapsin, M., Nikolic, J., Scepanovic, D., Radjo, I., & Drid, P. (2011). Empirical study of student satisfaction in the e-learning system environment. Technics technologies education management, 6(4), 1152-1164.
Taber, K. S. (2006). Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science. Studies in Science Education, 42, 125-184. doi:10.1080/03057260608560222
Uka, A. (2014). Student Satisfaction as Indicator of Quality in Higher Education. Journal of Educational Instructional Studies in the World, 4(3), 6-10.
Vinson, Nixon, Walsh, Walker, Mitchell, & Zaitseva, (2010). Investigating the relationship between student engagement and transition. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11 (2), 131-143, https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787410365658
Wah, N.N. (2019). Teaching Listening Skills to English as a Foreign Language Students through Effective Strategies. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(6), 883– 887.
Warschauer, M., & Kern, R. (2000). Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice. Cambridge University Press.
Wen, Q.F. (2019). Foreign language teaching theories in China in the past 70 years. Journal of the Foreign Languages in China, 16(5), 14–22.
Wen, Q. F., Liu, Y. P., Wang, H. M., Wang, J. Q., & Zhao, C. R. (2010). Research on the Revision and Reliability and Validity of the Instrument for Assessing Thinking Skills of Chinese Foreign Language Majors. Foreign Language World. 4, 19-26.
Wengensteen, S., Johansson, I.S., Bjorkstrom, M. E. & Nordstrom, G. (2010). Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 66(10), 2170–2181.
Wilson, B. G. (1995). Metaphors for instruction: Why we talk about learning environments. Educational Technology, 35(5), 25-30.
Yang, J., & Huang, R. (2015). Development and validation of a scale for evaluating technology-rich classroom environment. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(2), 145-162.
Yu, S. Q. (2000). Teaching Design Model Based on Constructivism. E-education Research, 12(01), 7-13.
Yusuf, Widyaningsih, Prasetyo, & Istiyono, (2021). Blended learning: its effect towards Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1832, 012039, doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1832/1/012039
Zhong, G., & Zhang, X. (2006). A Building of the current intelligent learning environment model. Computer Science, 1, 170–171.
Zhong, Z. X. (2005a). How to Develop Learners' Higher Order Thinking Skills? Journal of Distance Education. 4, 78-78.
Zhong, Z. X. (2005b). On the Design of Learning Environment. E-education Research, 7, 35-41.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Juan Lei, Thanawan Phongsatha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright on any article in the International Journal of Sociologies and Anthropologies Science Reviews is retained by the author(s) under the under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Permission to use text, content, images, etc. of publication. Any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose. But do not use it for commercial use or with the intent to benefit any business.